Healing Hypotheses  



Most dates are approximate. Only the most uncertain have question marks.


604-531 Lao Tzu: Taoism
600? Zarathustra (Zoroaster): Zoroastrianism
551-479 Kung Fu-tzu (Confucius): Confucianism    
550-480 Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (Enlightened One): (Buddhism)
800? Homer
750? Hesiod
6th cent. Theagenes   of   Rhegium:   allegorical interpretation of myths
6th cent. Pherecydes of Syros: reincarnation, diluted myth
624-546 Thales: abandoned myth, started philosophy, water arche
610-546 Anaximander: boundless
585-528 Anaximenes: air
580-497 Pythagoras: numbers, religious brotherhood
570-475  Xenophanes: critique of concepts of gods
544-483 Heraclitus: change (becoming, process) & Logos (order)
540-470 Parmenides:changelessness (being) Eleatic)
508 democracy begins in Athens
499-430 Zeno of Elea: changelessness (Eleatic)
499-428 Anaxagoras: "seeds" moved by mental particles



Healing Hypotheses


495-435 Empedocles: four "roots" moved by love and strife
470-399 Socrates (concept answer to ethical relativism, virtue as insightful knowledge, full soul immortality)
460-370 Democritus (& Leucippus, 5th Century): atoms
450-400 Age of Pericles (high Athenian culture)
445-365 Antisthenes: Cynic (unconventional virtuous living)
435-355 Aristippus: founded Cyrenaicism (raw hedonism)
431-404 Peloponnesian War (Sparta defeated Athens)
427-347 Plato (self-moving mind; real a world of Forms)
384-322 Aristotle (self-realization; isolated God; logic)
365-275 Pyrrho: Skeptic (knowledge impossible)
341-271 Epicurus: founded Epicureanism (refined hedonism; materialistic atomistic metaphysics)
336-264 Zeno of Citium: founded Stoicism (virtue the only good, brotherhood of all, peace of mind through conformity to Nature, or God, or Matter,or Fate, or Providence, which are synonymous in this deterministic pantheism)
215-130 Carneades: Skeptic
c.150 Aristobulus: united Greek and Jewish thought; allegorical interpretation of Bible
96-55 Lucretius: Epicurean
? BCE-30 CE Jesus, the Christ (the Messiah=Anointed One)
?-c. 64 Paul: invented Christianity?
30 BCE-50 CE Philo: allegorical interpretation; negative theology; Logos between God and world    
1st-3d. cents. Gnosticism (hidden knowledge, dualism)
60-138 Epictctus: Stoic

Healing Hypotheses



121-180 Marcus Aurelius: Stoic
c.150-215 Clement
c.185-254 Origen
100 BCE-150 Neo-Pythagoreanism: One
204-269 Plotinus: One; emanation; mysticism
268 Goths invade Greece
313 Constantine's Edict of Toleration ends persecution of Christians, but he revokes it in 325 and makes Christianity the imperial religion and thereafter dissenters from the church are persecuted
325 Council of Nicaea opts for a view of Christ as divine and replaces classical approach to God through nature with trinitarian, faith-emphasizing Christian approach to nature through God who transcends human reason
330 Constantine moves his capital from Rome to Constantinople (earlier Byzantium, now Istanbul), capital of Eastern or Byzantine Empire for more than a millennium
354-430 Augustine
370 Asian Huns invade Europe
406 Vandals invade Gaul; Romans leave Britain
410 Goths sack Rome
425 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invade Britain
433  Attila the Hun begins reign
476 Goths depose last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus; Middle Ages begin 529   Justinian closes Academy at Athens, formally ending Greek philosophy, and starts codifying laws
570-632 Muhammad
634  Muslims begin conquest of Near East and Africa
711 Moors invade Spain
732 Charles Martel defeats Moors at Battle of Tours, stopping Muslim advance into


Healing Hypotheses


800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the West, political end of Dark Ages phase of Middle Ages
810-877 John Scotus Erigena
814 Arabic numerals established
900  Spain starts to drive out Moors; Mayas emigrate to Yucatan Peninsula
932 Printed books from woodblocks developed in China
1000  Vikings begin to explore North America
1033-1109 Anselm of Canterbury
1050-1121 Roscellinus
1054 Byzantine Empire breaks with Roman Church, with Eastern Church thereafter independent of Western Church 
1059-1109 Al-Ghazali
1066 Normans conquer Britain (Battle of Hastings)
1079-1142 Bernard of Clairvaux,
1091-1153 Peter Abelard
1096 First Crusade to oust Muslims from Holy Land
1100 Polynesian Islands colonized
1126-1198 Averroes
1135-1204 Maimonides
1190 Genghis Kahn begins to conquer Asia
1193-1280 Albertus Magnus
1204 Crusaders capture and sack Constantinople
1210  Mongols invade China
1214-1294 Roger Bacon (not to be confused with Francis Bacon, 1561-1626)
1215 Magna Carta
1225-1274  Thomas Aquinas
1228 Sixth Crusade captures Jerusalem
1240 Mongols capture Moscow, destroy Kiev
1260  Kublai Kahn founds Yuan dynasty in China
1260-1327 Meister Eckhart

Healing Hypotheses



1265-1308 John Duns Scotus
1271 Marco Polo leaves for China to visit Kublai Kahn
1280-1347 William of Occam
1291 Crusades end as Muslims rout Christians in Palestine
1325 Aztecs found Tenochtitlan
1337 Hundred Years' War between England and France begins
1347 Bubonic plague spreads from China to Cyprus
1348 Black Death (plague) spreads to England
1351 Plague reaches Russia; European toll more than 25 million
1363 Tamerlane begins conquest of Asia
1368  Mongol dynasty ends in China; Ming dynasty begins
1390 Turks conquer Asia Minor
1401-1464 Nicolas of Cusa
1402 Tamerlane conquers Ottoman Empire
1431  Jeanne d'Arc burned as a witch at Rouen
1453 Hundred Years' War ends; fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks; traditional date for end of the Middle Ages and beginning of the Renaissance

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